Document Type : original article


1 Assistant Professor of Nursing, Patient Safety Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2 Professor of Nursing, Maternal and Child Obesity Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3 PhD Candidate in Nursing, Department of Nursing, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

4 Assisstant Professor, Non Communicable Disease Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran



Background: Childhood weight status is one of the important predictors of health status later in life. Some previous studies have postulated a relationship between the pattern of breakfast intake and weight status, but this relationship has not yet been clearly confirmed. This study aimed to assess the status of regularity in intake of breakfast and snacks and its relationship with weight status in elementary school students.
Method: This study was done with a descriptive-analytic design. 362 362 children (Males: 192, Females: 170 child) were selected from elementary schools of Urmia by the use of stratified cluster sampling. A dietary 24-hour recall form was used for the assessment of intakes. Data about breakfast, snacks, height, weight, and waist circumferences were collected. Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C) was used to assess the participants’ physical activity level. Data were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software.
Results: Mean student age, weight and BMI were 10.57±1.17 years, 37.44±11.30 kg and 18.4±3.39, respectively. 53.2% of girls had a regular breakfast and 55% regular snack intake. Among the boys, 46.8% had regular breakfast and 45% regular snack intake. Results showed a significant relationship between BMI and snacks consumption (p = 0.02). There was a significant relationship between the frequency of irregular breakfast intake and weight (P=0.01), but the relationship was not significant for the body mass index (P = 0.11). 58.1% of the students in the irregular breakfast group and 64.4% of those in the irregular snacks group were lean.
Conclusions: Regular intake of snacks was correlated with higher weight status and maintaining desirable BMI. Irregular breakfast intake was related to lower weight. Most students with irregular breakfast and snack intake were underweight and thin.