Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by a pattern of extreme pervasive, persistent and debilitating inattention, overactivity and impulsivity. It is believed to be one of the most common reasons for mental health referrals to family physicians, aediatricians,paediatric neurologists and child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although originally thought to remit during childhood, the symptoms of ADHD have also been shown to persist in patients through adolescence and into adulthood . The disorder is often chronic, with one third to one half of those affected retaining the condition into adulthood . It interferes with many areas of normal development and functioning in a child’s life. Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers to experience educational underachievement, social isolation and antisocial behaviour during the school years and to go on to have significant difficulties in the post-school years (1). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. The worldwide prevalence in children ≤18 years has been estimated at 5.3% in a systematic review of 102 studies from all continents, with a majority from North America and Europe (2).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity according to DSM-IV (3) . The World Health Organization (WHO) (4) uses a different name—hyperkinetic disorder (HD)—but lists similar operational criteria for the disorder. Regardless of the name used, ADHD/HD is one of the most thoroughly researched disorders in medicine . It has been associated with a broad range of negative outcomes for affected subjects and with a serious financial burden to families and society, which characterizes it as a major public health problem.
An understanding of the epidemiological aspects of ADHD/HD may provide insight into its distribution and etiology as well as information for planning the allocation of funds for mental health services. In past decades, investigators from all regions of the world have made substantial efforts to define the prevalence of the disorder. Several literature reviews have reported highly variable rates worldwide, ranging from as low as 1% to as high as nearly 20% among school-age children. Several investigators have suggested that prevalence rates in Europe were significantly lower than rates found in North America (2).
ADD; ADHD; Childhood hyperkinesis.
Symptoms of ADHD fall into three groups:
Some people with ADHD have mainly inattentive symptoms. Some have mainly hyperactive and impulsive symptoms. Others have a combination of different symptom types. Those with mostly inattentive symptoms are sometimes said to have attention deficit disorder (ADD). They tend to be less disruptive and are more likely not to be diagnosed with ADHD.
Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games).
Boys and girls display very different ADHD symptoms, and boys are much more likely to be diagnosed with the attention disorder. Why? It’s possible the nature of ADHD symptoms in boys makes their condition more noticeable than it is in girls.Boys tend to display externalized symptoms that most people think of when they think of ADHD behavior, for example: impulsivity or “acting out”hyperactivity, such as running and hittinglack of focus, including inattentivenessphysical aggressionADHD in girls is often easy to overlook because it’s not “typical” ADHD behavior. The symptoms aren’t as obvious as they are in boys. They can include:being withdrawnlow self-esteem and anxietyintellectual impairment and difficulty with academic achievementinattentiveness or a tendency to “daydream”verbal aggression: teasing, taunting, or name-calling (Figur.1) (5-7).
Fig.1: Different ADHD symptoms in children
The mean worldwide prevalence of ADHD is between 5.29% and 7.1% in children and adolescents (
Prevalence factors ADHD prevalence rates may vary depending on several factors: Age – ADHD can affect children from pre-school age2-4 and increasing recognition is now given to the fact that ADHD can extend beyond childhood and adolescence into adulthood (8, 9-12). Gender – a higher prevalence is often reported in males (8,13,14). Subtype of ADHD – combined-type ADHD is generally considered most prevalent in all age-groups (15,16). ADHD is often present alongside comorbidities such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorder (9,16-19) which may further complicate understanding of true prevalence rates.
It is estimated that ADHD affects between 5.4-8.7% of children in Africa. Data quality however is not high(20).
A 2008 evaluation of the “KiGGS” survey, monitoring 14,836 girls and boys (age between 3 to 17 years), showed that 4.8% of the participants had an ADHD diagnosis. While 7.9% of all boys had ADHD, only 1.8% girls had it, too. Another 4.9% of the participants (6.4% boys : 3.6% girls) were suspected ADHD cases, because they showed a rate ≥7 on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scale. The number of ADHD diagnoses was 1.5% (2.4% : 0.6%) among preschool children (3–6 years old), 5,3 % (8.7% : 1.9%) at age 7–10 years, and had its peak at 7.1% (11.3% : 3.0%) in the age group of 11–13 years. Among 14 to 17 years old adolescents the rate was 5.6% (9.4% : 1.8%) (21).
Rates in Spain are estimated at 6.8% among people under 18 (22).
In the United States it is diagnosed in 2-16 percent of school children. The rates of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are much higher on the east coast of the United States than on its west coast. The frequency of the diagnosis differs between male children (10%) and female children (4%) in the United States. This difference between genders may reflect either a difference in susceptibility or that females with ADHD are less likely to be diagnosed than males. Boys outnumber girls across all three subtyping categories, but the exact magnitude of these differences seems to depend on both the informant (parent, teacher, etc.) and the subtype. In two community-based investigations, conducted by DuPaul and associates, boys outnumbered girls by only 2.2:1 in parent-generated samples and 2.3:1 in teacher-based input (23-29).
If ADHD is suspected, the person should be evaluated by a health care professional. There is no test that can make or exclude a diagnosis of ADHD. The diagnosis is based on a pattern of the symptoms listed above. When the person with suspected ADHD is a child, parents and teachers are usually involved during the evaluation process.
Most children with ADHD have at least one other developmental or mental health problem. This problem may be a mood, anxiety or substance use disorder; a learning disability; or a tic disorder. A doctor can help determine whether these other conditions are present.
Treating ADHD is a partnership between the health care provider and the patient. If the patient is a child, parents and often teachers are involved. For treatment to work, it is important to:
If treatment does not seem to work, the health care provider will likely:
Risk factors for ADHD include:
Although sugar is a popular suspect in causing hyperactivity, there's no reliable proof of this. Many things in childhood can lead to difficulty sustaining attention, but that is not the same as ADHD (35,36).
To help reduce your child's risk of ADHD:
If your child has ADHD, to help reduce problems or complications:
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28. The worldwide-pooled prevalence of ADHD for persons age 18 and under was 5.29%, based on a review of 102 studies comprising 171,756 subjects from all world regions.
[Source: Polanczyk et al. (2007 June), The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis, American Journal of Psychiatry 2007:164(6): 942-8].
29. Global ADHD prevalence for males aged 5-19 is 2.2% and for females 0.7%, based on a review of 44 studies covering 21 world regions.
[Source: Erskine et al. (2013 December), Research Review: Epidemiological modelling of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2013;54(12): 1263-74.
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