1 Maternal _ Fetal & Neonatal Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

2 Breast Feeding Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.


Hydrops Fetalis is a serious condition in fetal period, characterized by the presence of serous fluid accumulation in at least two potential spaces in fetus including pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and ascites. The incidence of hydrops fetalis is one per 2500-3000 pregnancies. This condition is followed by different diseases. Fetal hemolytic anemia and its hypoxemia due to hydrops fetalis are potentially life or function threatening. Mortality rate is 50-90%; this poor prognosis is improving with advances in prenatal and medical treatment.                  
Methods and Materials
This study performed on patients’ records with hydrops fetalis diagnosis in one of the neonatal referral and academic center, Vali-e-Asr Hospital Tehran, the capital of Iran from 2003 to 2010. Etiology, prognosis, and frequency of Hydrops fetalis in newborns were evaluated.
Out of 10878 cases, 0.35% was born with hydrops fetalis:18.42% immune [Rh incompatibility  (%85.71), Kell antigen system(%14.29) ] and 81.58% non-immune.
The rate of hydrops due to Rh incompatibility is significant in our center (85.71%), however, it is unusual in most of medical centers all over the world.