Department of Psychology Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Psychology Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
Associate professor, Department of Psychology Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran.
Background: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, the search for specific psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder is of great importance. The current study examined the mediating role of the emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between body image disturbance and disordered eating behavior among students.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 264 students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of emotion regulation difficulties of Gratz and Roemer (2004), The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) of Cash (2000) and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979). The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and multiple regressions.
Results: The results showed that there was internal significant correlation among emotion regulation difficulties, body image disturbance and disordered eating behaviors (p
- Ackard DM. AnorexiaB. Disordered eating, and obesity. In: Legato MJ (ed) Principles of gender-specific medicine. California: Elsevier Academic Press; 2004.
- Ackard DM, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Prevalence and utility of DSM-IV eating disorder diagnostic criteria among youth. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2007; 40(5): 409–17.
- Berg KC, Frazier P, Sherr L. Change in eating disorder attitudes and behavior in college women: Prevalence and predictors. Eating Behaviors 2009; 10: 137–42
- Cain AS, Epler AJ, Steinley D, Sher KJ. Concerns related to eating, weight, and shape: Typologies and transitions in men during the college years. The International Journal of Eating Disorders 2012; 45: 768–75.
- Buckholdt KE, Parra GR, Jobe-Shields L. Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism through which parental magnification of sadness increases risk for binge eating and limited control of eating behaviors. Eating behaviors 2010; 11(2): 122-6.
- Striegel-Moore RH, Bulik CB. Risk factors for eating disorders. Am Psychol 2007; 62: 181–98.
- Keel PK, Dorer DJ, Franko DL, Jackson SC, Herzog DB. Postremission predictors of relapse in women with eating disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2005; 162: 2263–68.
- Gunnard K, Krug I, Jimenez-Murcia S, Penelo E, Granero R, Treasure J, et al. Relevance of social and self-standards in eating disorders. European Eating Disorders Review 2012; 20(4): 271-78.
- Favaro A, Santonastaso P, Manara R, Bosello R, Bommarito G, Tenconi E, et al. Disruption of visuospatial and somatosensory functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa. Biological Psychiatry 2012; 70(10): 864-70.
- Stice E. Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: A meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin 2002; 128(5): 825−48.
- Neumark-Sztainer D, Paxton SJ, Hannan PJ, Haines J, Story M. Does body satisfaction matter? Five-year longitudinal associations between body satisfaction and health behavior in adolescent females and males. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006; 39(2): 244–51.
- Boroughs M, Thompson JK. Exercise status and sexual orientation as moderators of body image disturbance and eating disorders in males. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2002; 31(3): 307-11.
- Thompson JK, Coovert MD, Richards KJ, Johnson S, Cattarin J. Development of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in female adolescents: Covariance structure modeling and longitudinal investigations. International Journal of Eating Disorders1995; 18 (3): 221-36.
- Sim L, Zeman J. Emotion regulation factors as mediators between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms in early adolescent girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence 2005; 25(4): 478-96.
- Nesse RM, Ellsworth PC. Evolution, emotions and emotional disorders. American Psychologist 2009; 64(2): 129–39.
- Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 2004; 26(1): 41–54.
- Gratz KL, Tull MT. Emotion regulation as a mechanism of change in acceptance- and mindfulness-based treatments. In R. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness and acceptance processes in clients: Illuminating the theory and process of change (pp. 107–133). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications; 2010.
- Sim L, Zeman J. The contribution of emotion regulation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in early adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2006; 35: 219–28.
- Czaja J, Reif W, Hilbert A. Emotion regulation and binge eating in children. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2009; 42(4): 356–62.
- Zysberg L, Rubanov A. Emotional intelligence and emotional eating patterns: A new insight into the antecedents of eating disorders? Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2010; 42(5): 345–48.
- Markey MA, Vander Wal JS. The role of emotional intelligence and negative effect in bulimic symptomatology. Compr. Psychiatry 2007; 48(5): 458–64.
- Cash TF. Users’ manual for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Available at www.body-images.com. Accessed Sep 4, 2008.
- Janda LH. The Psychologist's Book of Self-Tests: 25 Love, Sex, Intelligence, Career, And Personality Tests Developed by Professionals to Reveal the Real You. 1st ed. Tehran: Aeeizh; 1996. (Text in Persian)
- Garner DM, Garfinkel PE. The Eating Attitudes Test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med 1979; 9(2): 273-9.
- Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1986; 51(6): 1173-82.
- Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 2004; 36(4): 717-31.
- Mohr HM, Zimmermann J, Roeder C, Lenz C, Overback G, Grabhorn R. Separating two components of body image in anorexia nervosa using fMRI. Psychological Medicine 2010; 40(9): 1519–29.
- Thompson JK, Heinberg LJ, Altabe M, Tantleff-Dunn S. Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1999.
- Thompson JK, Stice E. Thin-ideal internalization: Mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-image disturbance and eating pathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2001; 10(5): 181–3.
- Polivy J, Herman CP. Causes of eating disorders. Annual Review of Psychology 2002; 53: 187–213.
- Bennett K, Stevens R. Weight anxiety in older women. European eating disorders review 1996; 4: 32−9.
- McLean SA, Paxton SJ, Wertheim EH. A body image and disordered eating intervention for women in midlife: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 2011; 79(6): 751.
- Harrison A, Sullivan S, Tchanturia K, Treasure J. Emotion recognition and regulation in anorexia nervosa. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 2009; 16(4): 348-56.
- Tasca G, Szadkowski L, Illing V, Trinneer A, Grenon R, Demidenko N, et al. Bissada H. Adult attachment, depression, and eating disorder symptoms: The mediating role of affect regulation strategies. Personality and Individual Differences 2009; 47: 662- 67.
- Lavender JM, Anderson DA. Contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to disordered eating and body dissatisfaction in college men. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2010; 43(4): 352-57.
- Polivy J, Herman CP. Etiology of binge eating: psychological mechanisms. In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT, editors. Binge eating: nature, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford; 1993.
- Merwin RM, Zucker NL, Lacy JL, Elliott CA. Interoceptive awareness in eating disorders: Distinguishing lack of clarity from non-acceptance of internal experience. Cognition and Emotion 2010; 24: 892–902.
- Thompson JK, Coovert MD. Body image, social comparison, and eating disturbance: A covariance structure modeling investigation. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1999; 26(1): 43-51.
- Botta R.A. Television images and adolescent girls' body image disturbance. Journal of communication 1999; 49(2): 22-41.
- McDonald K, Thompson JK. Eating disturbance, body image dissatisfaction, and reasons for exercising: Gender differences and correlational findings. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1992; 11(3): 289-92.
- Ackard DM, Croll JK, Kearney-Cooke A. Dieting frequency among college females: Association with disordered eating, body image, and related psychological problems. Journal of Psychosomatic research 2002; 52(3): 129-36.
- Sim L, Zeman J. The contribution of emotion regulation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2006; 35(2): 207-16.
- Overton A, Selway S, Strongman K, Houston M. Eating disorders-The regulation of positive as well as negative emotion experience. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 2005; 12: 39–56.