Pediatric neurological disorders including muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury are defined as a heterogenous group of diseases, of which some are known to be genetic. The two significant features represented for stem cells, leading to distinguish them from other cell types are addressed as below: they can renew themselves besides the ability to differentiate into cells with special function as their potency. Researches about the role of stem cells in repair of damaged tissues in different organs like myocardium, lung, wound healing, and others are developing. In addition, the use of stem cells in the treatment and improving symptoms of neurological diseases such as autism are known. Many epigenetic and immunological studies on effects of stem cells have been performed. The action of stem cells in tissue repair is a need for further studies. The role of these cells in the secretion of hormones and growth factors in the niche, induction of cell division and differentiation in local cells and differentiation of stem cells in damaged tissue is the samples of effects of tissue repair by stem cells.
Cognitive disorders, epilepsy, speech and language disorders, primary sensory dysfunction, and behavioral challenges are symptoms of non-neuromotor dysfunction in half of pediatrics with CP. Occupational therapy, oral medications, and orthopedic surgery for supportive and rehabilitative approaches are part of Conventional remedy for cerebral palsy. This paper summarizes the clinical world wide experience about stem cell based therapeutic procedures for pediatric neurological disorders.