Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy in the pediatrics with cancer which affect their quality of life. Use of some methods of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is problematic. Because, leukemia patients are at risk of infection and bleeding, therefore the use of acupressure, acupuncture, and deep massage can be risky in these patients. Slow- stroke back massage is applied on the surface of body, so does not have complications. No study has addressed the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatrics with acute leukemia in the world.
Material and methods
This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT), double blind and repeated measures design. In this RCT, 45 school age children with acute leukemia were placed in the massage and control groups. Before start of the study, at the day of chemotherapy administration (day 1th), only nausea and vomiting were measured. Then during 6 days next (day 2 through 7), the intervention group received 5-minutes Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM), immediately before start of each session of chemotherapy. Nausea was measured during chemotherapy, 0.5 h and 3 h after each session of chemotherapy in the two groups. Also vomiting was recorded during 24 h after each session of chemotherapy. Repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square, and t-test were used for analysis.
Most of pediatrics were male (58.13%), and suffered from Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (81.7%). The repeated measure analysis showed that in the intervention group, the SSBM reduced progressive mean of nausea severity and frequency of vomit over time. While, this side effects have slightly increased over time in the control group.
The results of this study are suggesting that SSBM, as a non-pharmacologic, easy and safe method, is effective in controlling Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in the pediatrics with acute leukemia.