Background: On tuberculosis control standpoint, the treatment of children with TB is not considered a priority as they rarely transmit the disease and contribute little to the maintenance of the tuberculosis epidemic. Therefor this study conducted to describe pediatric TB cases, and to identify pattern of risk factors in non-endemic communities
Materials and Methods: The present cross- sectional study conducted on 139 children under-five years of old with TB in Tehran province from March 2006 to March 2015. Data were extracted from TB registry system. Data were analyzed using Stata software version, 12.
Results: Overall, records on 139 children with TB had been evaluated. Most of under-five TB cases were boys (58%) and urban dwellers (88%), roughly half of the sample (54%) was diagnosed as extra- pulmonary TB, while most of them (66%) had been reported through public health networks. Treatment success rate were nearly 85%, and 11% of them had been deceased. There was a significant relationship between household contacts and type of TB (P <0.05).
Conclusion: We found that most of pediatric TB cases in central part of Iran were males, urban dwellers, and extra pulmonary type. Despite the fact that Afghans refugees make up a small percentage of the population of Tehran province but more than 25 % of TB cases attributable to them. Given that Pediatric TB is a direct consequence of adult TB and is a good marker of current transmission in the community, therefore necessary health strategies should be taken to control TB in this high-risk group.