1 Amirkabir Hospital, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

2 Department of Pediatric, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

3 Health Policy and Promotion Research Center Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

4 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.


This retrospective study aimed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in patients < 18 years old at a single referral center.
Materials and Methods
In a hospital-based case control study, 66 CKD patients less than 18 years old were compared to 81 control patients (also under 18) without CKD. A patient was defined as a CKD case with renal injury and/or had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of Results
Fever, chills, and urinary tract infections were the most common clinical signs in the referred patients. Urinary tract infection (39.5%) and growth failure (12.9%) were the most important causes in referred pediatric CKD. After controlling the effect of confounding variables, household income, using packed water for drinking, percentile of body mass index (BMI), and gestational age were the significant predictors of pediatric CKD (P<0.05).
The most common presentations of the disease were Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and fever. Reflux nephropathy was the leading cause of CKD in children. Therefore, more attention to children with these signs is essential for early diagnosis. High household income and preterm delivery were the risk factors for CKD in children.