1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

4 Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.


Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if current age-specific mortality rates be continued. Under-5 mortality, a Millennium Development Goal indicator, is a leading indicator of child health and overall development. This indicator measures child survival. It also, reflects the social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their health care, and also it is a one of health development index (HDI) in world (1, 2).