1 Department of Health Education, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modarress University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Psychiatry, School of Mental Health Research, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Up to 50% of these children suffer from at least one comorbid sleep disorder. Considering the deleterious effects of sleep problems on all aspects of children's life, this study was designed to investigate the impact of a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep habits in children with ADHD and comorbid sleep disorders.
Materials and Methods
This randomized controlled trial, was conducted on 62 children aged 7 to13 years with diagnosis of ADHD and comorbid sleep disorders. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was completed by children's mothers and then the participants allocated randomly into experimental (n=28) and control (n=28) groups. Mothers of the children in experimental group received a sleep hygiene educational intervention which was delivered through a training session and a booklet followed by two telephone calls and educational text messages. Participants in the control group received usual clinical care. The post-test was performed two months after intervention.
56 children (case and control groups) completed the survey (mean age 8.62 ± 1.57 years). Data analysis showed that, compared with control children, experimental children had a significant- reduction in mean scores of Bedtime resistance (P<0.05), Sleep onset delay (P<0.05), Sleep duration (P<0.05), Sleep anxiety (P<0.05), Daytime sleepiness (P<0.05) and total score of CSHQ (P<0.05), after controlling pre-test.
The sleep hygiene intervention improved sleep problems in a sample of children with ADHD by parent report. The findings of this study support the design, implementation and evaluation of educational programs on good sleep-hygiene practices for children and adolescents.