1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

2 2Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

4 School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran

5 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Promote and support breastfeeding is an essential element for the health and development of infants so that, it introduced as most cost-effective intervention to reduce infant mortality in developing countries (1). Breastfeeding has an important role to ensure food security for maintain a healthy and productive life for a large proportion of babies in the world, in addition, it is associated with improves intelligence quotient (IQ), school attendance and higher income in adult life (2).
World Health Organization (WHO) indicated exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life with starting in the first half hour after delivery for optimal growth and development (3). Early initiation of breastfeeding (first hour after birth) has positive effects on biological and emotional health for mother and child and reduces child mortality (4). It is estimated that if breastfeeding in children aged at 0-23 months have been considered optimally, among children under 5 years old globally over 800,000 life could be saved every year (2). In other hand, protect effects of breastfeeding for mothers against breast and ovarian cancer, osteoporosis have been identified (5).