1 Associate Professor of Pediatric Nephrology, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

2 School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Neurology, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.


Pediatric nephrolithiasis is a condition the prevalence of which varies geographically with multiple etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine possible concomitant anatomic and metabolic disturbances in children with nephrolithiasis and to answer the questions regarding the role of each metabolic and anatomic abnormality.
Materials and Methods
Between 2007 and 2015, 1,080 patients referred to our pediatric hospital of Hazrat Masumeh in Qom city, with the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis. Complete history from each eligible patient has taken using a prespecified data extraction form. Then, each child was referred for metabolic and anatomical evaluation using laboratory and imaging tests.
According to the extracted data, 92% of our patients had at least one concomitant metabolic disorder and 12.5% had an anatomic abnormality. Recorded metabolic disorders in our series were hypocitraturia (56.9%), hyperuricosuria (21.4%), hypercalciuria (19.3%), hyperoxaluria (14.7%), phosphaturia (11.4%), and cystinuria (1.4%). According to data analysis, 12.5% of patients had an anatomical abnormality of which the ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux were the most common.
The current study showed that the most common abnormalities in association with nephrolithiasis were metabolic disturbances, which highlight the importance of further metabolic study, even in patients with anatomical abnormalities.