Department of Pediatrics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran.


Background: Multiple pregnancies are responsible for the increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the perinatal outcome between multiple and singleton pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. A sample of 50 multiple birth neonates- born in Fatemieh Hospital of Hamadan, Iran in 2015- was selected using simple random sampling. Meanwhile, they were compared with 50 single birth neonates in the same center on gender, gestational age, mean birth weight, Apgar score, the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), delivery method, cause of neonatal admission, duration and short outcome of neonatal hospitalization. The data were collected from the medical files of neonates and their mothers. The data were analyses using SPSS version 16.0 software.
Results: In this study, 100 neonates (50 single births and 50 multiple births) were compared. The mean gestational age and mean birth weight of multiple births were lower than that of single births (P<0.05). The frequency of low birth weight was 4%, 95.5%, and 100% among the single births, twins, and triplets, respectively. A significant difference was also found between multiple and single births on 1-Minute and 5-Minute mean Apgar scores,  neonatal hospitalization after birth, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the need for mechanical ventilator, antibiotics intake and phototherapy (P<0.05). Frequency of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were greater in multiple pregnancies than single ones; however, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). A significant difference was found on the frequency of in vitro fertilization (IVF) method, rate of cesarean section and preterm delivery (P<0.05).
Conclusion: In this study, multiple pregnancies were associated with maternal complications including preterm delivery and the increased cesarean section rate, and neonatal complications such as low birth weight, prematurity and increased rate of neonatal hospitalization that increases risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality.