Child labor is one of the challenges among most big cities in the world. In recent years, substance abuse among working, and street children has become a common phenomenon. Thus, in the present study, the protective factors affecting the prevention of substance abuse among Iranian working children were identified by using the social-ecological approach.
Materials and Methods
The participants included Seventeen 8-15-year-old children who were the members of Imam Ali and Ilia non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Semi-structured in-depth interview interviews were used for data collection. Purposive sampling began in December 2015 and continued till data saturation in June 2016. Data were analyzed based on qualitative content-oriented analysis.
Different protective factors were identified and classified at five levels of the social-ecological model. Four classes (belief, knowledge, attitude, skill) at the personal level, two classes (family and relatives) at the interpersonal level, two classes (governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations) at the organizational level, the class of living environment at the community level , and two classes (supportive policies and restrictive policies) at the public policies level were considered.
The protective factors affecting the prevention of substance abuse are related to personal, household, social, organizational, and public policy factors. Thus, personal and social empowerment, social participation and capacity building seem necessary to strengthen the protective factors which play a significant role in the prevention of substance abuse among Iranian working children.