1 Department of Midwifery, Students Research Committee, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Social determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial to not only infants, but also mothers. Since prolactin stimulates milk production, increasing its levels through dopamine antagonists, such as metoclopramide, may enhance milk production. However, the efficacy of this method should be further studied. Therefore, this systematic review sought to determine the effects of metoclopramide on prolactin levels in breastfeeding mothers.  
Materials and Methods:  In this systematic review study, International and National data bases such as PubMed,Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Sciences, SID,Magiran, and Iranmedexwere searched for the keywords of lactation, breastfeeding, prolactin, metoclopramide and breast milk. Articles published during 1979 to 2016 in either English or Persian was selected. The review was limited to human clinical trials examining the effects of metoclopramide on mothers’ serum prolactin levels. Two authors independently evaluated the eligibility the studies and cases of disagreement were resolved through consensus.
Results: Five studies on the effects of metoclopramide on mothers’ serum prolactin levels were included in this systematic review. Based on their results, compared to placebo, two weeks of metoclopramide administration did not have significant effects on mothers’ serum prolactin levels (mean difference: 73.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]:-19.99 to 166.11) However, placebo-controlled studies showed significant changes in prolactin levels after using metoclopramide for three weeks (mean difference: 111.06; 95% CI: 1.93 to 220.20).        
Conclusion: The result of meta-analysis showed that the use of 10 mg of metoclopramide three times a day for three weeks increased mothers’ serum prolactin levels after childbirth.