Background: Imaging modalities such as voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC), and renal cortical scintigraphy (RCS) with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99mDMSA), are helpful in detecting possible abnormalities of urinary tract such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, there are confounding data regarding the preference of these modalities. In the present study, we aimed to assess the role of Tc-99mDMSA scan in prediction of possible VUR and the subsequent need for VCUG or DRNC. Materials and Methods: Three hundred fifty seven children under 14 years old with first-time febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) who were admitted between April 2004 and February 2017 were enrolled. Data regarding to VCUG or DRNC in order to evaluate the presence of possible VUR were recorded. Finally, accuracy of Tc-99mDMSA scans in prediction of VUR were assessed. Results: Analyses showed a sensitivity and specificity of 95.65% and 14.72%, respectively for Tc-99mDMSA scan in detection of VUR. Patients with mild renal involvement in Tc-99mDMSA scans had a 3.5-fold greater risk of having VUR than those with a normal scans (odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-8.58; p=0.007). In addition, the risk of VUR is up to 7.0-fold greater in children with moderate renal involvement (odds ratio=7.0; 95% CI: 2.6-13.2; p<0.0001) and up to 9.2-fold greater in children with severe renal involvement (odds ratio=9.2; 95% CI: 3.2-17.3; p=0.007) in the Tc-99mDMSA scans compared to those with a normal scans. Conclusion: According to the results, Tc-99mDMSA scan can be used as a screening test in prediction of VUR in infants and children with first- time febrile UTI.