1 Colorectal Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Liver and Digestive Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

4 Molecular Medicine Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran AND Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

5 Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background: The results of existing studies regarding the use of neuromodulation in fecal incontinence (FI) are contradictory and therefore, a definitive conclusion cannot be made in this regard. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of neuromodulation in controlling FI in children through a systematic review.
Methods: A decision was made to perform the search in electronic databases of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus until end of October 2017. In the second step, the abstracts of the extracted studies were evaluated by 2 researchers independently and recorded in the data extraction form. Finally, All studies were summarized and categorized based on the evaluated outcomes and overall effect size was presented.
Results: 5 studies were included in the present meta-analysis (including 115 children and adolescent. Pooled analysis also showed that the odds of improvement in the group under treatment with nerve stimulation was up to 20 times higher (OR=20.29; 95% CI: 8.67 to 47.45; p