Document Type : original article


1 Community Based Participatory Research Center, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 PhD in Reproductive Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

3 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

4 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 School of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Exposure to cigarette smoke has numerous health risks for infants and children. Home smoking ban is a simple way to reduce the detrimental impacts of cigarette smoke. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking bans in homes as well as associated factors in families with infants in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods
This study was a population-based cross-sectional survey on 1,112 families with infants, selected through stratified-cluster sampling. In this study, a researcher made questionnaire including four parts: sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, smoking restrictions, and parental awareness and belief, was completed. The multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between smoking bans in homes and associated factors.
Complete smoking ban in homes was 37.3%. In the multivariable logistic regression, cigarette smoking ban in homes was significantly higher for employed mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–7.2, P<0.001), for those who did not have any smoker friends or relatives (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.4, P<0.001), for those smoking a smaller number of cigarettes (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.3, P=0.003), and for parents who concurred with the impacts of thirdhand cigarette smoke on infant health (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.4–14.9, P<0.001).
This study indicates that complete smoking ban is not established in many households with infants in Iran. Furthermore, it is necessary to perform health interventions for reducing infant exposure to cigarette smoke, while considering the factors associated with smoking ban.